注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

小楼一夜听风雨

计算机知识、分子模拟、Linux学习,与您共分享!

 
 
 

日志

 
 

中国工程类学生英文稿件的常见错误  

2010-04-15 00:01:22|  分类: 杂文随记 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

本文摘自日省日新的百度博客,地址如下:http://hi.baidu.com/%C8%D5%CA%A1%C8%D5%D0%C2/blog/item/f17b97db9d53ce6fd1164e0c.html

The Most Common Habits from more than 200 English Papers written by Graduate Chinese Engineering Students

作者:Felicia Brittman

说明:这篇文章的作者从200多篇中国学者撰写的英文论文中总结出了一些中国作者常犯的错误,并进行了分析。拜读下来收获不小,不少错误也是自己没有意识到的。先选择一些关键性的问题摘录于此,以作备忘。

(题外话:最近还下载了两本书,The Craft of ResearchStyle: Toward Clarity and Grace
,准备好好学习一下。其实中文写作和英文写作的原则还是一致的)


①一个句子表达多个意思: 虽然句子可以复杂,但一个句子最好只表达一个核心意思;

②冠词误用: a, an, the 这三个冠词虽然简单,但要正确应用却并不容易,特别是the,常常出现滥用和漏用的情况;

e.g.

Incorrect  The software PowerSHAPE is chosen to be a 3D modeling tool; it is good at dealing with free surfaces and curves.

Correct  The software PowerSHAPE is chosen to be the 3D modeling tool; it is good at dealing with free surfaces and curves.

"There was only one 3D modeling tool used in this study, therefore ‘3D modeling tool’ is specific and requires the article the."


如何正确使用冠词:

中国工程类学生英文稿件的常见错误 - jewelseeker - 小楼一夜听风雨
 

③句子太长:Although, in Chinese writing it is acceptable to put several supporting ideas in on sentence to show their relationship, in English, the main idea and each supporting idea is typically written in separate sentences.

弊端: if they contain multiple statements that confuse the main idea.

对策:一个句子只表达一个核心意思,注意逗号和分号的使用。


④喜欢用目的、原因、时间、地点状语开头:Chinese writers often preface the main topic of a sentence by first stating the purpose, location, reason, examples and conditions as introductory elements.

弊端:  However, this has the effect of demoting the importance of the main idea and making the reader think the author is indirect. 

对策:Bring the main idea to the beginning of the sentence。

e.g.
Incorrect  Inside the test box, the space was filled with asbestos.

Correct  The space inside the test box was filled with asbestos.

Incorrect  To ensure sheet metal quality as well as assembly quality, CMMs are widely used in automotive industry production.

Correct  CMMs are widely used in automotive industry production to ensure sheet metal quality as well as assembly quality.

Incorrect  When U  is taken as the control parameter, the BDs for  ?=0.0, 0.001, 0.005 are shown in Fig. 8.

Correct  Figure 8 shows the BDs for  ?=0.0, 0.001, and 0.005 when U  is taken as the control parameter.


⑤先导词指代不明,特别在使用宾语从句修饰限定词时。

⑥‘Respectively’ and ‘respective’ 误用:前者总是用在句末;有时不需。

⑦‘In this paper’, ‘in this study’ 误用:中国作者容易滥用“In this paper”。事实上,“In this paper”一般只出现在“introduction”和“conlusion”中。在其他地方,不需特别强调这一点。另外,如果是指代别人的研究,则用“in this study”即可。这一点比较微妙。

⑧ 数字和方程误用:中国作者喜欢用阿拉伯数字,但在句子的开头最好避免使用阿拉伯数字,而应采用相应的英文单词。

Incorrect  12 parameters were selected for the experiment.  
Correct  Twelve parameters were selected for the experiment.

另外,阿拉伯数字一般只用来表示科学数据。对于表达普通的数的概念最好使用因为单词。

(误) All 3 studies concluded that the mean temperature should be 30°C.  
(正)  All three studies concluded that the mean temperature should be 30°C。

类似的,在表达等式时,也最好使用句子而非符号。
(误)  If the power battery SOC > SOClo and the driving torque belongs to the middle load,…

(正)  If the power battery SOC is greater than SOClo and the driving torque belongs to the middle load,…



⑨段落两个常见的错误,一是忘记首行缩进,二是喜欢在一段之前用单独的一句话来表达逻辑关系(古龙同学经常这样干)。

⑩figure 和 table 的缩写不规范figure有多种缩写,但一篇文章应该始终用一种,而不能Figure, figure, Fig, or fig.全部粉墨登场。

另外,在句子开头不能使用缩写。

?‘such as’ and ‘etc.’ 误用Such as means ‘for example’ and implies that an incomplete list will follow(后面跟着的一个不完整的例举); etc. means ‘and so on’ and is used at the end of a list to show it is not complete(在一个列的后面,表示这个列的内容不完整).  Therefore, using such as and etc. together is redundant. 两者不能同时使用。

另外一个难以发现的错误在完整例举中使用‘such as’ 或 ‘etc.’。由于 是两者都是表示例举不完整,因此在一个完整例举的句子中不能使用‘such as’ 或 ‘etc.’

(误) Compared to traditional industry, Micro-electronic fabrication has three
characteristics such as high complexity, high precision and high automation.

(正)Compared to traditional industry, Micro-electronic fabrication has three
characteristics: high complexity, high precision and high automation.


?错误的复数形式:对于单、复数同形的单词,表达复数概念时不能加s。

?  literature (when referring to research)
?  equipment,
?  staff (referring to a group of people)
?  faculty


?用词重复:

中国工程类学生英文稿件的常见错误 - jewelseeker - 小楼一夜听风雨

? 复数名词误为单数:某些限定词要求其后的名词为复数形式。

中国工程类学生英文稿件的常见错误 - jewelseeker - 小楼一夜听风雨

?错误的搭配:

Do not write ‘by this way’.  Instead write ‘by doing this’, or ‘using this method’.

Do write ‘the results are shown in Figure 2’. Do not write ‘the results are showed as Figure 2’.

? 某些词或词组不能放在句子开头:

不能用阿拉伯数字开头;
不能用缩写单词开头;
不能用“how to ……”开头;


(误)  How to find the optimal parameter is the main objective.
(正)  Determining how to find the optimal parameter is the main objective.


?单独的字母未用斜体Italicize variables appearing in the text to differentiate them from words 以区别这些字母和正常的单词。

(误)The graph shows t, a, and C as a function of time’
(正)The graph shows t, a, and C as a function of time’.


? 表达口语化喜欢使用 obviously,‘that is to say’ and ‘namely’等口语化方式进行表达。

(误)  Obviously, detecting regimes by means of PMH maps is a novel method.
(正)  Detecting regimes by means of PMH maps is a novel method.

Avoid overusing the phrases ‘that is to say’ and ‘namely’.  Instead, try to convey your meaning in one sentence


Do not use ‘too’ at the end of a written sentence, especially in a technical paper.

  评论这张
 
阅读(544)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2018